An Introduction to Distance Vector Routing Protocols


Distance Vector Routing Protocols

When it comes to the different types of routing protocols, the simplest and easiest one of them is Distance vector routing protocols.  Confused why it is the simplest and easiest one? It is because that Distance Vector Routing Protocols uses bellman ford algorithm. 

The approach used by distance vector routing protocols is also known as routing by rumor. This is because that all those routers that use distance vector routing protocols, instead of possessing the topological information about the network, they rely on the neighbors information. Such routers, periodically update their neighbors about the network changes using limited broadcast with the destination IP address

The term “Distance Vector” comes from the fact that distance vector routing protocols use the distance, as a metric, and direction, as a next-hop, for the best path selections. 

In all directions, Distance Vector algorithms send updates to their near neighbors If the routing table is updated in any way. At each exchange, the router adds its own distance value to the distance value received for a route. The router that got the update sends the revised table forth again, and the procedure is repeated by receiving routers.

Every router using the distance vector routing protocol will rely on the information of its neighbors, even if that information isn't always accurate. Due to the possibility of routing loops arising as a result of this phenomenon, extra loop avoidance mechanisms have been added to distance vector routing protocols.

The routers using Distance Vector routing protocols do not verify if anyone is listening to the updates they send, however they broadcast the updates on a regular basis even if the network topology remains unchanged.

Some examples of Distance Vector routing protocols (that definitely uses distance vector routing algorithm) are Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). The routing information protocol (RIP) which comes in two versions RIPv1 and RIPv2 is an open standard, while Interior Gate Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol. Cisco Introduced Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol as an enhancement to IGRP. EIGRP was formerly a Cisco proprietary protocol, but in 2013, Cisco declared it an open standard protocol that may be used on any business equipment.

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